The Global Innovation Index (GII) seeks to capture the many facets of innovation and provide tools to help assist in tailoring policies to promote long term growth, improve productivity and job creation. It provides a tool and rich source of detailed metrics for a large number of economies, in 2017 totaling 127 economies representing 92.5% of the world’s population and 97.6% of global GDP.
The Global Innovation Index 2017 focuses on “Innovation Feeding the World.” Digital technology is central to development and innovation. As technology increases, its applications expand to new sectors, and it is no longer a question of if the global agricultural industry should adopt digital technology but instead how that adoption can occur. In the agricultural sector, digital technology applications include remote sensing (via satellite), geographic information systems, crop and soil health monitoring, livestock and farm management, among others.
Prior to planting, digital technology can recommend crop selections and assist the user in obtaining insurance. Once crops have been planted, digital technology can provide data on pest, disease, and weather-related incidents. After harvesting, technology can provide detailed information on import, export, and domestic markets. Cloud-based and mobile communications allow for real time monitoring and continuous access. The application of digital technology to farming has not been fully explored, but advanced analytics and data generation has already allowed framers to make smarter decisions while maximizing inputs and labor.
High yield wheat and rice led to the most significant improvements in crop yields in the 20th century. This green revolution enabled developing economies to import less expensive grain and seed varieties that would be disease resistant and respond to fertilizers.
The use of technology generates data which is then used for analyses, planning and resource management. The generated data becomes the intellectual property of the owner. Trademarks are developed from the generated information, and all of this pushes innovation, resource management and technical coordination forward.
Commercial research and development (R&D) is growing along with an increased focus on securing intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks and trade secrets. To facilitate this R&D and help it have a greater impact, the GII recommends that governments:
- Support agricultural extension efforts to disseminate knowledge about new technologies and techniques
- Streamline regulation to reduce lag times, and offer market support for promising agricultural techniques and technologies
- Create public-private partnerships, which governments can use to leverage public-sector investment
- Maintain and expand regional and international trade in agricultural outputs
Technology is continually evolving and links more machines, sensors, people and equipment than ever before. Data is generated quicker and in greater quantities, and is being used in new ways. The GII takes these innovations in technology into account as it looks at the amount of intellectual property generated, trademarks applied for and research being done to help assign countries their rank in the index.
“Sensors are making farms smarter and more connected, which enables real-time traceability as well as the diagnosis of crops and soil conditions, and the monitoring of livestock and farm machinery in real time.” -GII, 2017
About the Global Innovation Index:
The GII is an ever-evolving project building on previously published editions while incorporating newly available data. The GII uses two indices-the innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index- each built around key pillars. Five of these pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities:
- Human capital and research
- Market sophistication
- Business sophistication
Two output pillars capture the evidence of the innovation inputs:
- Knowledge and technology outputs
- Creative outputs
Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators. The sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators while pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of sub-pillar scores. From those scores four other measures are then calculated:
- Innovation Input Sub-Index
- Innovation Output Sub-Index
- The Overall GII score
- The Innovation Efficient Ratio
Pillar six in the Innovation Output Sub-Index is ‘knowledge and technology outputs.’ This encompasses patent applications, patents, scientific and technical articles and intellectual property receipts.
Read the full report here.
Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2017): The Global Innovation Index 2017: Innovation Feeding the World, Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva.